All processes require some decontaminated waste to be released into the ground, local waterways, or the atmosphere, or that waste is recycled. No plants completely recycle wastes, although some newer reactors will do so. Studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory show that it is possible to treat low-activity waste by zeta-potential controlled additions of alum and activated silica to remove colloids. This is followed by demineralization and decontamination by cation and anion exchange resins, the passage through a column of activated carbon to remove cobalt and organic materials (Blanco 1966). The residues, exhausted resins, and activated carbon, must be packaged and sent to a storage facility.
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