Direct Input from Pollutant Source

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Nonpoint pollutants can also reach receiving waters by direct input from a pollutant source. Drainage systems include depressions, ditches, culverts, catch basins, wetlands, and creeks that collect water and transport pollutants to receiving waters. Pollutants may be directly introduced at specific sites in the system, independent of storm conditions. For example, substances may be poured into a catch basin, traveling directly into a creek or other receiving water.

In addition to cross-connections of sewage and industrial wastes from sanitary sewers, solid waste dumps, and failing septic tanks, solids accumulations and growth in sewers can also enter into storm sewers. Excess water from lawn watering and car washing is another example of direct input. Pollutant loadings from direct inputs are difficult to document and quantify.

All Land-Use Categories Combined

Residential Commercial

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DAYS Elapsed Time Since Last Sweeping or Rain

FIG. 9.20.2 Pollutant Accumulation for Different Urban Land Uses. (Reprinted, with permission from J.D. Sartor and S. Boyd, 1972, Water pollution aspects of street surface contaminants, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), EPA Report R2-72-087, Washington, D.C.)

All Land-Use Categories Combined

Residential Commercial

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DAYS Elapsed Time Since Last Sweeping or Rain

FIG. 9.20.2 Pollutant Accumulation for Different Urban Land Uses. (Reprinted, with permission from J.D. Sartor and S. Boyd, 1972, Water pollution aspects of street surface contaminants, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), EPA Report R2-72-087, Washington, D.C.)

TABLE 9.20.2 ANNUAL STORM POLLUTANT EXPORT FOR VARIOUS LAND USE TYPES BY PERCENT IMPERVIOUS COVER (POUNDS/ACRE/YEAR)

General

Percent

Total

Total

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