• Requires high capital installation costs, especially for low feed rates

• Necessitates operating care to prevent refractory damage from bulk solids

• Permits airborne particles to be carried out of the kiln before complete combustion

• Frequently requires large excess air intakes due to air leakage into the kiln by the kiln end seals and feed chute. This affects supplementary air efficiency

• Causes high particulate loadings into the air-pollution control system

• Allows relatively low thermal efficiency

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