Economic losses resulting from air pollutants include soiling, damage to vegetation, damage to livestock, and deterioration of exposed materials. Soiling represents the general dirtiness of the environment that necessitates more frequent cleaning. Examples include more frequent cleaning of clothes, washing of automobiles, and repainting of structures. Soiling is typically due to particulate matter being deposited, with the key component being settleable par-ticulates or dustfall.
Examples of damage to vegetation are numerous and include both commercial crops and vegetation in scenic ar eas. Most vegetation damage is due to excessive exposure to gaseous air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Oxidants formed in the atmosphere due to photochemically induced reactions also cause damage to vegetation. Some studies indicate that settleable particu-lates also disrupt normal functional processes within vegetation and thus undesirable effects take place. An example is the deposit of settleable particulates around a cement plant.
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