Deep-bed, granular filters are applicable to polishing effluents from physical, chemical, or biological wastewater treatment systems. These filters use coarse-bed media and permit high hydraulic and solids loadings (see Table 7.33.5). The effluent from a typical municipal or industrial activated-sludge plant contains approximately 20 mg/l of SS. Effluent polishing by granular filtration can remove another 80 to 90% of this contaminant. Similarly, these filters can remove 50 to 90% of the free oil (and its associated BOD) from API or rolling-mill system effluents.
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