EPA regulation development involves interpreting the mandates and directives of the SDWA, performing technical and scientific assessments to meet SDWA requirements, preparing regulations that blend technical and scientific aspects with policy considerations, reviewing draft regulations within the agency, and facilitating public review of the draft and proposed regulations.
Figure 4.6.1 shows the development of draft EPA regulations. The EPA presents analytical methods and monitoring techniques in the methods and monitoring support document. The following factors are among those they consider in specifying which analytical methods should be approved:
• Reliability (precision and accuracy) of the analytical results
• Specificity in the presence of interferences
• Availability and performance of laboratories
• Rapidity of analysis to permit routine use
• Costs of analysis
Guidance to implement the monitoring requirements is also in the document. States have an active role in determining appropriate monitoring requirements. The EPA generally specifies a minimum frequency and provides guidance on factors to consider when assessing a system's vulnerability to contamination.
The treatment technologies and costs document summarizes the availability and performance of the treatment technologies that can reduce contaminants in drinking water. Costs of treatment are determined for each technology for many sizes of water systems. The EPA determines the BAT based upon a number of factors, some of which include technologies that
• Have the highest efficiency of removal
• Are compatible with other types of water treatment processes
• Are available as manufactured items or components
• Are not limited to application in a particular geographic region
• Have integrity for a reasonable service life as a public work
• Are reasonably affordable by large metropolitan or regional systems
• Can be mass-produced and put into operation in time for implementation of the regulations
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