Excavation and soil removal is one of the most common activities in groundwater remediation and cleanup. Excavation involves removing contaminated soil from the unsaturated zone to prevent further groundwater contam ination by the residuals present in that zone. Excavation is often used at sites where site conditions preclude onsite treatment, stabilization, or capping of the contaminated unsaturated zone. Factors affecting excavation include the volume of soils to be handled, the location of the area to be excavated, the type of soils and contaminants, and the regulatory requirements. The excavated material is often disposed of at a permitted landfill or treated and reused.
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