Final Effluent

FIG. 7.21.4 Extended-aeration plant flow sheet.

mary clarifier is eliminated. At a surface settling rate of 350 to 700 gpd per ft2, 4 hr final settling is typical. The extended-aeration period reduces or eliminates the requirement for disposing excess sludge and is therefore a popular system for small plants.

Figure 7.21.5 is a flow diagram for the completely mixed, activated-sludge system. This process is an extension of step aeration and provides a uniform oxygen demand throughout the aeration tank. Mechanical aerators also provide mixing for this unit. The SS concentration in the mixed liquor is two to three times the concentration in most conventional plants. Aeration detention times are reduced to 2 to 4 hr. The sludge recycling ratio is generally high because the greater flow improves mixing.

Figure 7.21.6 is a typical contact stabilization process flow diagram. The small contact tank, with detention times of about As hr binds the insoluble organic matter in the activated sludge. Clarification separates the contact-settled sludge from the supernatant. The smaller sludge volume is then aerated for an additional 3 or 4 hr. Since the total sewage flow is aerated for a shorter period (with only the returned activated sludge being aerated for longer periods), the aeration tank capacity is smaller than in conventional plants. With the activated sludge in two tanks, the plant is not out of operation when the contact tank is disabled. Sludge recycling percentages of 30 to 60% are normal with contact stabilization.

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