Flocculants are water-soluble, organic polyelectrolytes that are used alone or in conjunction with inorganic coagulants or coagulant aids to agglomerate solids suspended in aqueous systems. The large dense flocs resulting from this process permit more rapid and efficient solids-liquid separation.

Separating SS from raw water and wastewater for purification generally involves gravity settling in large clari-fiers operating at low velocity gradients prior to a secondary biological process, a tertiary physicochemical process, or both. This primary physical process is enhanced by coagulation and flocculation of the initially fine colloidal particles into larger and more dense aggregates that settle more rapidly and completely. Coagulation and floc-culation are sequential processes distinguished primarily

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