Flow detection applications in the wastewater treatment industry include the measurement of large flows in partially filled pipes using weirs, flumes, or ultrasonic sensors. When water is flowing in regular pipelines, magnetic flowmeters, venturi tubes, flow nozzles, and pitot tubes are the usual sensors. In smaller pipelines, orifice plates, vortex flowmeters, or variable area flowmeters are used. For sludge services, doppler-type ultrasonic and magnetic flowmeter (provided with electrode cleaners), V-cone detector, and segmental wedge-type detector can be used. Gas, liquid, or solid additives can be charged by Coriolis mass flowmeters (gas or liquid), metering pumps, turbine or positive displacement meters (liquids), variable-area flowmeters (gas or liquid), or gravimetric feeders (solids). Table 7.6.1 summarizes flowmeter features and capabilities. The following sections provide a brief summary of the features and capabilities of the flowmeters used in the wastewater treatment industry.
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