This section addresses the thermal destruction of gaseous wastes. These wastes are predominantly VOC-containing. The principal methods are thermal combustion and incineration and flaring, although a number of new technologies are emerging. First, this section provides an overview of these methods including major technological and some cost considerations. Then, it cites several examples of industries that employ these technologies to achieve destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) in excess of 98% and low products of incomplete combustion (PIC) emissions.
Next this section reviews the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals that form the basis of thermal incineration and illustrates the principles with two sample calculations. Most of this section is devoted to the design considerations of thermal incinerators; the remaining section is allocated to flares and the emerging technologies.
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