Gases

Hydrogen sulfide

Methane

Oxygen

Biological Constituents

Animals Plants Protists: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Viruses

Domestic and industrial wastes and natural decay of organic materials Decomposing wastewater and industrial wastes

Domestic water supply, domestic and industrial wastes, soil erosion, and inflow/infiltration Domestic and industrial wastes

Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Agricultural wastes Industrial wastes

Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Natural decay of organic materials

Domestic wastes, domestic water supply, and groundwater infiltration Domestic wastes, domestic water supply, and groundwater infiltration Industrial wastes Domestic and agricultural wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes and natural runoff Domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes Domestic water supply and domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes

Decomposition of domestic wastes Decomposition of domestic wastes Domestic water supply and surface-water infiltration

Open watercourses and treatment plants Open watercourses and treatment plants

Domestic wastes, surface-water infiltration, and treatment plants Domestic wastes, surface-water infiltration, and treatment plants Domestic wastes

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1991, Wastewater engineering, 3d ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.).

Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus lead to algal overgrowth with concomitant water treatment processes. Chlorides cause a salty taste in water; and in sufficient concentration, water usage must be limited. Acids, alkalies, and toxic substances can cause fish kills and create other imbalances in stream ecosystems.

Thermal discharges can also cause imbalances and reduce the stream waste assimilative capacity. Stratified flows from thermal discharges minimize normal mixing patterns in receiving streams and reservoirs. Table 7.2.7

provides an overview of certain contaminants and their impact in surface waters. Table 7.2.8 summarizes the impact of certain pollutants with regard to use impairment of the water.

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