Gravitational Settling

Particles deviate from streamlines when the settling velocity due to gravity is sufficiently large. When flow is downward, gravity increases collection; conversely, when flow is upward, gravity causes particles to move away from the collector resulting in a negative contribution. Gravity is important for large particles at low flow velocities. The di-mensionless parameter for this mechanism is as follows:

o Vts

where U is the free stream velocity and Vts is the settling velocity. The single-filtration efficiency due to gravity is as follows:

Vgravity

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