Info

Air2

18,809

Average figure; ranges from 236 Btu/tn-mi for petroleum to approximately 2550 Btu/tn-mi for coal slurry and natural gas.

2All-cargo aircraft only. Belly freight carried on passenger airlines is considered free because the energy used to transport it is credited to the passengers. Thus, the efficiency figure for all air freight is a misleading 9548 Btu/tn-mi.

Average figure; ranges from 236 Btu/tn-mi for petroleum to approximately 2550 Btu/tn-mi for coal slurry and natural gas.

2All-cargo aircraft only. Belly freight carried on passenger airlines is considered free because the energy used to transport it is credited to the passengers. Thus, the efficiency figure for all air freight is a misleading 9548 Btu/tn-mi.

Stage One

Customer Need

Stage Two

Product Design and Development f->|

Stage Three

Raw Material Selection V. s

Continuously work with customers to understand their health, safety, and environmental goals, as well as their performance requirements, to determine how products can meet these goals.

Design and develop products to meet customers' needs. Use laboratory and field research to evaluate new products, especially for health, safety, and environmental performance. Work to develop products with reduced environmental impact including energy use reduction and reduced disposal costs. Estimate potential product and process risks.

Research ways to reduce the use of toxic or hazardous raw material while maintaining product performance. Raw materials are substituted as appropriate. Require raw material suppliers and contractors to review their products and processes so that they supply the most effective materials and the latest health, safety, and environmental data.

Products are manufactured with the objective of enhancing the safety of a company's and its customer's employees, minimizing production of waste, conserving energy, improving the production process, and reducing adverse environmental impact.

Stage Eight

Disposal

Stage Seven

Recycle and Re-use

Stage Six

Product Usage

Stage Five

Product Distribution

Recycle or dispose containers and unused products in a safe,efficient manner which meets or exceeds applicable environmental regulations.

Minimize waste production and energy consumption to conseive the environment and improve productivity. Conseive natural resources through recycling and utilization of waste raw material, packaging, and products.

Use labeling, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and technical literature to inform customers how to safely use a company's products in a manner which minimizes risk to human health and the environment.

Make shipments in properly labeled, high integrity containers using thoroughly trained, qualified operators who follow approved procedures and are in compliance with all state and federal transportation guidelines.

FIG. 3.5.2 XYZ Product stewardship.

Material Substitution

One common example of this strategy is to substitute more benign printing inks and pigments for those containing toxic heavy metals or solvents. Also, whenever possible, designers can create packaging with a high recycled content. The necessary design elements for most reusable packaging systems include:

• a collection or return infrastructure

• procedures for inspecting items for defects or contamination

• repair, cleaning, and refurbishing capabilities

• storage and handling systems

Degradable Materials

Degradable materials can be broken down by biological or chemical processes or exposure to sunlight. Degradability is a desirable trait for litter deposited in aesthetically pleasing natural areas. However, a number of challenging problems must be resolved before the use of degradable packaging becomes a commonly accepted strategy.

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