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FIG. 9.9.1 Formation and well losses in a pumping well. (Reprinted from R.S. Gupta, 1989, Hydrology and hydraulic systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc.)

wells), and Figure 9.9.4 shows configurations for wells in a confined aquifer (artesian wells).

Compared to a fully penetrating well, a partially penetrating well has an additional head loss, as shown in Figure 9.9.5, due to the convergence of flow lines and their extended length. Hence, for a given pumping rate Q, the drawdown in an imperfect well is larger than in a perfect well.

Starting with Forchheimer in 1898, numerous analytical and empirical equations have been developed to solve imperfect wells: Kozney (1933), Muskat (1937), Li et al, Hantush (1962), and Kirkham (1959) among others.

FIG. 9.9.1 Formation and well losses in a pumping well. (Reprinted from R.S. Gupta, 1989, Hydrology and hydraulic systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc.)

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