Vortex shredding of the blades
widely used in construction, especially in steel-framed buildings and shipbuilding. Pneumatic hammers, portable air compressors, loaders, and conveyors are used in both mining and construction. Crushing and pulverizing machines are widely used in mining and in mineral processing. A Portland cement plant has all of these plus ball or tube mills, rotary kilns, and other noisemakers as well. Highway and bridge construction use noisy earth-moving equipment; asphalt processing plants produce offensive fumes as well as burner noises; concrete mixing plants produce both dust and noise.
The actual noise-producing mechanisms include turbulence from air discharge; impact shock and vibration from drills, hammers, and crushers; continuous vibrations from shakers, screens, and conveyors; explosive noise; and exhaust turbulence from internal combustion engines.
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