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Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1991, Wastewater engineering: Treatment, disposal, and reuse, 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

*20°C values. Equation 7.22(4) accounts for temperature effects. A typical 6 value for municipal wastewater is 1.04.

Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1991, Wastewater engineering: Treatment, disposal, and reuse, 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

*20°C values. Equation 7.22(4) accounts for temperature effects. A typical 6 value for municipal wastewater is 1.04.

The kinetic models previously derived can be applied directly in designing a variety of activated-sludge processes. However, some modifications may be necessary since the flow diagram involved can be different. The next subsections use the design of contact-stabilization and step-aeration activated-sludge processes as examples to show the modifications involved (Ramalho 1983).

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