Water-efficient dishwasher

Reduces water used

Water-efficient clothes washer

Reduces water used

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1991.

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1991.

2. conservation of water use within industrial processes

3. production decreases

4. reuse of municipal and industrial treatment plant effluents as a water supply, and

5. elimination of batch or slug discharges of process wastewater (Nemerow and Dasgupta 1991).

Plants can achieve wastewater classification by considering the flow rates, quality characteristics, and treatment needs of wastewater used for manufacturing processes, cooling purposes, and sanitary uses.

Water conservation within industrial processes occurs when the industry changes from open to closed systems (Nemerow and Dasgupta 1991). For example, the sequential reuse of water within canning plants can achieve savings up to 20 to 25% and the use of shutoff valves on hoses and water lines can lead to another 20 to 25% reduction in water use. Nemerow and Dasgupta (1991) give additional examples of production decreases, effluent reuse, and elimination of slug discharges.

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