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Raffinate ->

Phase I Extract

Emulgation

Settling Emulsion Breaking

FIG. 3.8.15 Continuous emulsion liquid membrane extraction. (Reprinted, with permission from R. Marr, H. Lackner, and J. Draxler, 1989, VTT Symposium 102. Vol. 1, 345.)

ial transfer takes place. In the sedimentation stage, the continuous phase is separated from the emulsion by gravity. In the emulsion-breaking stage, the W/O emulsion is broken, and the organic inner phase is separated.

Compared to LLE, liquid membrane extraction, has the following advantages:

• Requires less solvent

• Is more compact because the extraction and stripping are performed simultaneously

Currently, the main areas of development are in increasing the emulsion stability and in the possibility of including catalyst reactions in the inner phase. Although liquid membrane extraction is not yet widely available, promising results have been reported for a variety of applications, and it appears to offer distinct advantages over alternative methods.

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