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Presence of anions in acidic solutions that form

Cation exchange reactions—leach calcium from S/S product

soluble calcium salts (e.g., calcium chloride

increases permeability of concrete, increases rate of exchange

acetate, and bicarbonate)

reactions.

Presence of halides

Easily leached from cement and lime.

Source: Reprinted, from United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991, Technical resources document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste material (Draft), (Contract No. 68-CO-003, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Oh.).

Source: Reprinted, from United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991, Technical resources document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste material (Draft), (Contract No. 68-CO-003, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Oh.).

falling temperature, or the cure rate may be unacceptably slowed.

Depending on the waste and binding agents involved, S/S processes can produce hot gases, including vapors that are potentially toxic, irritating, noxious to workers or communities downwind from the processes. In addition, if volatile substances with low flash points are involved, and the fuel-air ratio is favorable, there is a potential for fire and explosion.

Taking S/S processes from bench-scale to full-scale operation involves inherent uncertainties. Variables such as ingredient flow-rate control, material balance, mixing, materials handling and storage, and weather may all affect a field operation. These potential engineering difficulties emphasize the need for field demonstration before full-scale implementation.

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