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FIG. 3.7.3 Overall strategy for minimizing waste from secondary reactions. (Reprinted, with permission, from Smith and Petela, 1991.)

Each of these measures, in appropriate circumstances, minimizes waste. The effectiveness of these techniques depends on the reaction system. Figure 3.7.3 shows where each technique is appropriate for a number of reaction systems.

Temperature, Pressure, and Catalysts

In a system of multiple reactions, a significant difference can exist between the primary and secondary reactions in the way they are affected by changes in temperatures or pressure. Temperature and pressure should be manipulated to minimize waste (see Figure 3.7.3).

Catalysts also have a significant influence on the waste production with multiple reactions. Changing a catalyst is a complex problem which can ultimately mean a new process.

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