aDissolved salts aDissolved salts

In membrane-type desalting processes, the research has been directed toward both reducing membrane cost and increasing membrane life span.

Today there are over 1000 desalination plants in operation, converting over a billion gallons of saltwater per day into potable water.

—F.B. Taylor, D.H.F. Liu, C.J. Santhanam References

Anon. 1971. Why hollow-fiber reverse osmosis won the top CE price for

DuPont. Chem. Eng. 78: 54. (29 November). Brennan, P.J. 1963. Fresh water from vapor-compression evaporation.

Chem. Eng. 70: 170. (14 October). Browning, J.E. 1970. Zero in on desalting. Chem. Eng. 77: 64. (23 March).

Ellwood, P. 1970. Chem. Eng. (2 Nov.) pp. 46-48. Gilliland, E.R. 1955. Fresh water for the future. Ind. Eng. Chem. 47(12): 2410.

Guccione, E. 1962. Old method for fresh-water needs. Chem. Eng. 69:

102 (26 November). Johnson, J.S. 1966. Hyperfiltration. In Spiegel, K.S. (ed.), Principles of desalination. New York, N.Y.: Academic. Larson, T.J. 1970. Reverse osmosis pilot plant operation: a spiral module concept. Desalination, 7: 187. Merten, U. 1966. Desalination by reverse osmosis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Othmer, D.F. 1969. Evaporation for desalination. Desalination, 6: 13. Othmer, D.F. 1970. Kirk-Othmer: Encyclopedia of chemical technology.

2d ed. Vol. 22, New York, N.Y.: Interscience. Rickles, R.N. 1966. Membrane: Technology and economics. Park Ridge,

N.J.: Noyes Development Corporation. Roe, R.C., and D.F. Othmer. 1971. Controlled flash evaporation. Chem.

Eng. Prog. 67(7): 77. Rubin, F.L. 1963. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 4th ed. New

York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill. Weismantel, G.E. 1968. Recycle boost desalting efficiency. Chem. Eng. 75: 86 (15 July).

Wilson, J.R. (ed.). 1960. Dimineralization by electrodialysis. London: Butterworth.

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