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Connections

Animal Excrement

Anti-Skid and De-

icing Materials

Abrasion of Solid Surfaces n

Air Transport (Including Rainfall)

Animal Excrement

Anti-Skid and De-

icing Materials

Abrasion of Solid Surfaces

Dust and Dirt Accumulation on The Catchment Surface

Overland Flow

Removal By Street Sweeping

Sewer Pipe Transport

Stormwater Ponds

Water Course

Spills

Solid Waste Disposal

Transport Processes

FIG. 9.20.1 Sources of pollutants in stormwater and pollutant pathways. (Reprinted from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1987, Manual on drainage in urbanized areas, vol. 1, Planning and design of drainage systems, UNESCO Press.)

Sources

Air Pollution

Sinks

• Suspended sediments

• Oxygen-demanding substances

• Toxic organics—pesticides, PCBs

• Nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorous

• Bacteria and viruses

• Petroleum-based substances or hydrocarbons

• Humic substances—precursors for trihalomethane

Annual pollutant loadings for storm water and combined sewer overflows are given in Table 9.20.1 (UNESCO 1987).

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