Two types of lined landfills are excavated and area. At excavated landfills, soil is excavated from the area where waste is to be deposited and saved for use as daily, intermediate, or final cover. Excavated landfills are constructed on sites where excavation is economical and the water table is sufficiently below the ground surface. Area landfills do not involve soil excavation and are built where excavation is difficult or the water table is near the surface. All cover soil is imported to area landfills. Both types of landfills are lined; the excavated landfill on the bottom of the excavation, the area landfill on the ground surface.
If the entire available area is lined at the beginning of a landfill's life, the large lined area collects rainwater for the life of the landfill, generating a large quantity of unnecessary leachate. For this reason, landfill liners and leachate collection systems are constructed in phases. Each phase consists of construcing a liner and leachate collection system on a portion of the available area, depositing waste in the lined area, and installing intermediate cover. Construction of the next phase begins before the current
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