Observation wells Pollulert and Leak-X Remote infrared sensing Surface geophysical methods U-tubes Vapor wells
Using collection mechanism of product in collection sump through sloped floor under the storage tank
Hydrocarbon detection by use of soluble dye through perforated pipe Water and soil sampling
Monitoring in interstitial space between the walls of double-walled tanks with vacuum or fluid sensors Diffusion of gas and vapor to a plastic material
Product sensing in liquid through monitoring wells at areas with high groundwater
Difference in thermal conductivity of water and hydrocarbons through monitoring wells
Determining soil temperature characteristic change due to the presence of hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon detection by ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic induction, or resistivity techniques Product sensing in liquid; collection sump for product directed through a horizontal pipe installed under a tank Monitoring of vapor through monitoring well
Source: Reprinted from U.S. EPA, 1986.
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