Observation wells Pollulert and Leak-X Remote infrared sensing Surface geophysical methods U-tubes Vapor wells

Using collection mechanism of product in collection sump through sloped floor under the storage tank

Hydrocarbon detection by use of soluble dye through perforated pipe Water and soil sampling

Monitoring in interstitial space between the walls of double-walled tanks with vacuum or fluid sensors Diffusion of gas and vapor to a plastic material

Product sensing in liquid through monitoring wells at areas with high groundwater

Difference in thermal conductivity of water and hydrocarbons through monitoring wells

Determining soil temperature characteristic change due to the presence of hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon detection by ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic induction, or resistivity techniques Product sensing in liquid; collection sump for product directed through a horizontal pipe installed under a tank Monitoring of vapor through monitoring well

Source: Reprinted from U.S. EPA, 1986.

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