List Of Abbreviations

The following abbreviations apply to the design of trickling filters:

E1 Percent BOD removal efficiency through first-stage filter and clarifier E2 Percent BOD removal efficiency through second-stage filter and clarifier W BOD loading, in lb per day, to first-stage filter, not including recycling W1 BOD loading, in lb per day, to second-stage filter, not including recycling Ld Removable BOD at depth D, in mg/l L Total removable BOD, in mg/l D Depth of filter, in ft K1 Constant

Le Unsettled filter effluent BOD, in mg/l Li Filter influent BOD, in mg/l i Influent flow, in mgd r Recirculation flow, in mgd a Filter radius, in ft T Wastewater temperature, in °C

Q1 Hydraulic load, in gal per min per sq ft (not including recirculation) K3 or K Treatability constant Q Flow, in mgd

Lo Influent BOD (including recirculation), in mg/l

A Area of filter, in acres m,n Constants for media

K20 Treatability constant at 20°C

V Volume of filter, in acre-feet

F Recirculation factor

(1 + 0.1R)2 where R is the recirculation ratio


Atkinson, B., and M.E. Ali. 1976. Wetted area, slime thickness and liquid phase mass transfer in packed bed biological film reactors (trickling filters). Trans. Instr. Chem. Engrs. 54, no. 239.

Characklis, W.G., and K.C. Marshall, eds. 1990. Biofilms. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Harrison, J.R., and G.T. Daigger. 1987. A comparison of trickling filter media. J. Water Poll. Control Fed. 59, no. 679.

McGhee, T.J. 1991. Water supply and sewerage. 6th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991. Wastewater engineering: Treatment, disposal, and reuse. 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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