Certain manual techniques cannot be avoided in studies of urban runoff quality. Manual sampling is useful when setting up automatic equipment, selecting the sampling section, and the inlet location.
Manual sampling requires good logistic preparation. Field crews must be dispatched to sampling sites before the start of a runoff event, so that sampling can start at the beginning of runoff. This is particularly important in combined sewers which exhibit the first flush phenomenon with high pollutant loads occurring early during runoff events. Therefore, field crews may have to be stationed at sampling sites. Extensive field training is essential to ensure collection of adequate samples.
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