The minimum design for sludge removal should include two concrete strips leading into each sludge drying bed so that a pickup truck can back up close enough to all parts of the bed for an operator to cast the dried sludge directly onto the truck with a pitchfork. A depth of 9 to 18 in of well-washed sand should be used in the bed. A uniformity coefficient not over 4 and preferably under 3As should be used, and the effective size of the sand should be between 0.3 and 0.75 mm.
Underdrains should have 4-in diameter pipes spaced 8 to 10 ft apart so that they do not fill with sand. Backfilling with gravel around underdrains enhances their effectiveness. Partially covering the bed with asphalt surfaces sloping 1 to 2 in/ft allows front-end loaders to remove sludge.
Paved drying areas allow the use of mechanical equipment but decrease the drying rate compared to drainable, sand drying beds. An open-type, asphalt bed with a small layer of sand over it is a good compromise for maximizing drainage while supporting equipment.
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