Methods Of Treatment

No process can alleviate all pulping effluent problems. Abnormal pH is neutralized with slaked lime, calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, since integrated pulping effluents are usually acidic (Laws and Burns 1960; Charles and Decker 1970). Settling removes suspended solids except for some mechanically ground "fines."

All microbiological oxidation systems reduce pulp effluent oxygen demand, but concurrent removal of acute toxicity is not related to operating parameters for these systems. Microbiological treatment may not completely remove substances responsible for tainting fish flesh or causing odor, foam, and taste in drinking water. Microbiological treatment does not remove color, however color bodies can be precipitated by massive lime treatment (EPA 1970).

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