Flow reductions related to municipal wastewater include: (1) water conservation; (2) reuse of water in homes; (3) reduction of infiltration and inflow; and (4) reduction in stormwater runoff via best management practices. Water savings of up to 20 to 30% can be accomplished in homes and businesses using flow reduction devices and practicing simple water conservation measures (Qasim 1985). Table 7.4.1 gives examples of home water savings devices and their potential for water use reduction. Table 7.4.2 provides brief descriptions of flow reduction devices and water-efficient appliances. Municipal ordinances can require water saving devices for new homes and businesses.
Qasim (1985) suggests that home water reuse can lead to a 30 to 40% reduction in water consumption and a 40 to 50% reduction in wastewater volume. Wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, showers, and laundry can be treated on-site and reused for toilet flushing and lawn sprinkling.
Reducing infiltration and inflow into sewer lines also reduces wastewater flow rates arriving at a treatment facility. Infiltration refers to the volume of groundwater entering sewers and building sewer connections from the soil and through defective joints, broken or cracked pipes, improper connections, and manhole walls. Inflow denotes the volume of water discharged into sewer lines from sources such as roof leaders, cellar and yard area drains, foundation drains, commercial and industrial clean water discharges, and drains from springs and swampy areas (Sullivan et al. 1977). Wet weather flows containing large volumes of infiltration and inflow can create hydraulic overload difficulties at treatment plants (Qasim 1985). For existing sewers, a program involving cleaning, inspection, testing, and rehabilitation measures may be necessary; rehabilitation includes root control, grouting, and pipe lin ing (Sullivan et al. 1977). New, smaller diameter sewers can also be placed inside existing sewers that have major infiltration and inflow problems. New sewers should be designed, constructed, and inspected to remain within an infiltration limit of 20 gal/in diameter/mi/day (185.2 l/cm diameter/km/day) (Sullivan et al. 1977).
The 1987 Clean Water Act requires the use of best management practice (BMP) for minimizing the flow and pol-lutional characteristics of storm water runoff from industrial areas and municipalities with populations of 100,000 or more. The act emphasizes minimizing nonpoint pollution from the introduction of storm water into sanitary sewer systems or from direct discharge into receiving bodies of water.
BMP refers to a combination of practices that are most effective in preventing or reducing pollution generated by nonpoint sources to a level compatible with water quality goals (Novotny and Chesters 1981). After problem assessment, examination of alternative practices, and public participation, the state (or designated area-wide planning agency) determines the BMP based on technological, economic, and institutional considerations. Examples of BMPs include spill prevention and response, sediment and erosion control measures, and runoff management measures (U.S. EPA 1992a,b). Applying these measures can reduce infiltration in areas with separate (storm water and sanitary) sewer systems and reduce water flows and pol-lutional characteristics in areas with combined sewer systems.
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