The demand and applications for nitrogen removal from wastewater have steadily increased. For example, waste-water treatment plants discharging directly to aquifers are required to remove nitrates to limit drinking water contamination. A large amount of full-scale experience is available in nitrifying/denitrifying systems. This section reviews nitrogen removal systems in two categories: systems that do and do not use internal recycling streams. It also provides flow schemes.
A common problem for plants that cannot completely nitrify is their inability to maintain a sufficient aerobic (oxic) sludge retention time (SRT). Aerobic SRT is the average amount of time that a single microorganism spends
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