Industrial wastewater discharges, especially from the ammonium nitrate fertilizer industry, typically contain con methanol NO3- + 0.83 CH3OH ® 0.5 N2
centrations of 500 mg/l of nitrogen, equally divided between ammonium and nitrate forms. Environmental engineers use the ion-exchange process to successfully remove such high concentrations of nitrogenous compounds. Ion exchange can purify the wastewater to a quality that complies with zero-pollutant-discharge criteria or that permits complete recycling of the wastewater. The ion-exchange process can also completely recover plant products lost into the waste stream and can efficiently recycle the recovered products into the plant processes.
Ion-exchange has been used successfully to treat the wastewater from a large nitrogen fertilizer plant producing 140,000 tn of prilled ammonium nitrate and 190,000 tn of nitrogen solutions annually. A captive ammonia plant producing 175,000 tn annually and a captive nitric acid plant producing 195,000 tn annually provide the feed stock for primary products. The wastewater from this typical plant contained a concentration of about 500 mg/l nitrogen, equally divided between ammonium and nitrate forms, in about 900,000 gal of effluent per day.
The fertilizer plant chose ion exchange as the treatment process at the conclusion of a two-year study which showed that no other process had the capability of approaching the zero-pollutant-discharge goal or permitted total water reuse and recycling. As a treatment process, ion exchange can provide effluent water of adequate quality for reuse or discharge, provided that the collected contaminant ions can be properly disposed, preferably as a recovered product.
Because of the nature of the manufacturing processes, the principal pollutant in nitrogen fertilizer plant effluent is ammonium nitrate. This salt is satisfactorily recovered from solution by ion exchange. Also, by regenerating cationic resin with nitric acid, and anionic resin with aqua ammonia, the ion-exchange process can provide for complete product recovery since the excess regenerants combine to form more principal product. Because the regenerants are inplant products, they are obtained at minimum cost.
The other ions resulting from resin backwash are principally those from water hardness. The ion-exchange process readily recycles recovered principal product, ammonium nitrate, and other recovered water impurities into the nitrogen solution production of typical nitrogen fertilizer plant. The resulting deionized water can also be reused.
The fertilizer plant selected continuous, countercurrent, moving-bed-type of ion exchange for this application since the system provides the low leakage of exchanged ions and high concentration of regenerant backwash favoring product recovery.
Table 7.38.2 shows an analysis of a typical nitrogen fertilizer plant wastewater as influent to the ion exchange treatment system together with analysis of the deionized effluent stream. Table 7.38.3 shows an analysis of the contaminants recovered from this wastewater.
In addition to the principal material, ammonium nitrate, the recovered ions constitute micronutrients for
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