For microorganisms, nutrients (1) serve as an energy source for cell growth and biosynthetic reactions, (2) provide the material required for synthesis of cytoplasmic materials, and (3) serve as acceptors for the electrons released in energy-yielding reactions. To sustain reproduction and proper function, microorganisms require an energy source, a carbon source for synthesis of new cellular material, and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In addition, organic nutrients (growth factors) may also be required for cell synthesis. Table 7.22.1 lists the primary nutritional requirements.
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