Name (Formula)



Arsenic (As)

Selenium (Se)


Barium (Ba)

Cadmium (Cd)

Chromium (Cr)



Alloying additive for metals, especially lead and copper as shot, battery grids, cable sheaths, and boiler tubes. High purity (semiconductor) grade

Electronics, xerographic plates, TV cameras, photocells, magnetic computer cores, solar batteries, rectifiers, relays, ceramics (colorant for glass) steel and copper, rubber accelerator, catalyst, and trace element in animal feeds

Getter alloys in vacuum tubes, deoxidizer for copper, Frary's metal, lubricant for anode rotors in X-ray tubes, and spark-plug alloys

Electrodeposited and dipped coatings on metals, bearing and low-melting alloys, brazing alloys, fire protection systems, nickel-cadmium storage batteries, power transmission wire, TV phosphors, basis of pigments used in ceramic glazes, machinery enamels, fungicide photography and lithography, selenium rectifiers, electrodes for cadmium-vapor lamps, and photoelectric cells

Alloying and plating element on metal and plastic substrates for corrosion resistance, chromium-containing and stainless steels, protective coating for automotive and equipment accessories, nuclear and high-temperature research and constituent of inorganic pigments

Storage batteries, gasoline additive, cable covering, ammunition, piping, tank linings, solder and fusible alloys, vibration damping in heavy construction, foil, babbit, and other bearing alloys

Amalgams, catalyst electrical apparatus, cathodes for production of chlorine and caustic soda, instruments, mercury vapor lamps, mirror coating, arc lamps, and boilers

Manufacture of silver nitrate, silver bromide, photo chemicals; lining vats and other equipment for chemical reaction vessels, water distillation, etc.; mirrors, electric conductors, silver plating electronic equipment; sterilant; water purification; surgical cements; hydration and oxidation catalyst special batteries, solar cells, reflectors for solar towers; low-temperature brazing alloys; table cutlery; jewelry; dental, medical, and scientific equipment; electrical contacts; bearing metal; magnet windings; and dental amalgams. Colloidal silver used as a nucleating agent in photography and medicine, often combined with protein

Carcinogen and mutagen. Long term—can cause fatigue, loss of energy and dermatitis. Long term—red staining of fingers, teeth, and hair; general weakness; depression; and irritation of the nose and mouth.

Flammable at room temperature in powder form.

Long term—increased blood pressure and nerve block.

Flammable in powder form. Toxic by inhalation of dust or fume. A carcinogen. Soluble compounds of cadmium highly toxic. Long term—concentrates in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and thyroid; hypertension suspected effect.

Hexavalent chromium compounds are carcinogenic and corrosive to tissue. Long term—skin sensitization and kidney damage.

Toxic by ingestion or inhalation of dust or fumes. Long term— brain and kidney damage and birth defects.

Highly toxic by skin absorption and inhalation of fume or vapor. Long term—toxic to central nervous system, and can cause birth defects.

Toxic metal. Long term—permanent grey discoloration of skin, eyes, and mucus membranes.

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