Operation and Maintenance

Equilibrium pumping is often used for plume management; however, nonequilibrium pumping has advantages in cases of floating and sinking plumes and can be used to flush sorbed contaminants associated with the residual phase. Pulsed pumping of recovery wells can be used to washout residuals from unsaturated zones, allow contaminants to diffuse out of low permeability zones, and flush and bring stagnant zones into active flow paths. Pulsed pumping, however, incurs additional costs and concerns that must be evaluated for site specific conditions (U.S. EPA 1989).

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