For many years, filters were used as insurance against contamination of potable water. Historically, in wastewater treatment, the effluent quality obtained from clarifiers was sufficient to meet discharge requirements, and effluent filtration was unnecessary. However, with the advent of effluent standards requiring more than 90% removal of the SS, wastewater filtration has become common practice.

Once the physical system is designed and installed, environmental engineers can try to optimize the operational cost. The criterion is that the maximum amount of acceptable quality filtrate is produced per unit of operating cost.

During filtration, the pressure required to maintain flow across the filter increases gradually due to solids accumu

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