For all but the most obvious waste problems, brain-storming is the best tool for generating waste reduction options. The best format for these meetings is to freely col-
Raw Materials 1%
Unrecovered Product 46%
Reaction By-Products Tars Formed During Distillation 50% 3%
lect ideas and avoid discussing them beyond what is necessary to understand them. Team members are encouraged to suggest ideas regardless of their practicality. Scribes capture suggestions and record them on cause-and-effect fishbone charts. The fishbone charts enable grouping options into categories such as chemistry, equipment modification, and new technology.
Identifying potential options relies on both the expertise and creativity of the team members. Much of the requisite knowledge comes from members' education and on-the-job experience. However, the use of technical literature, contacts, and other information sources is helpful. Table 3.2.3 lists some sources of background information for waste minimization techniques.
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