The general shapes of curves constructed from Equation 7.47(15) agree with experimental values; however, the coefficients vary appreciably for different fluid-solid systems. Therefore, environmental engineers should supplement the equation with tests when possible. Impurities deposited in the bed during batch filtration must be removed periodically, whenever the pressure loss rises and the flow rate decreases to the limiting acceptable values. Backwashing the bed to remove impurities creates a by-product of contaminated liquid, which must be disposed.

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