As a first step, products should be designed to withstand both shock and vibration.

Designers can use the strategies that follow to design packaging for efficient distribution.

Packaging Reduction

Packaging reduction includes elimination, reusable packaging, product modifications, and material reduction.

In elimination, appropriate products are distributed un-packaged. In the past, many consumer goods such as screw drivers, fasteners, and other items were offered unpack-aged. Wholesale packaging can be eliminated. For example, furniture manufacturers commonly ship furniture un-cartoned.

With reusable packaging, wholesale items that require packaging are commonly shipped in reusable containers. Tanks of all sizes, wire baskets, plastic boxes, and wooden hooks are frequently used for this purpose.

Even when products require primary or secondary packaging to ensure their integrity during delivery, product modifications can decrease packaging needs. Designers can further reduce the amount of packaging by avoiding unusual product features or shapes that are difficult to protect.

In material reduction, products that contain an ingredient in dilute form can be distributed as concentrates. In some cases, customers can simply use concentrates in reduced quantities. A larger, reusable container can also be sold in conjunction with concentrates. This method allows customers to dilute the products if appropriate. Examples of product concentrates include frozen juice concentrates and concentrated versions of liquid and powdered detergent. Material reduction can also be pursued in packaging design. Many packaging designers have reduced material use while maintaining performance. Reduced thickness of corrugated containers (board grade reduction) is one example. In addition, aluminum, glass, plastic, and steel containers have continually been redesigned to require less material to deliver the same volume.

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