Pathogens

Wastewater sludge is known to contain pathogens including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and helminths. Epstein and Donovan (1992) note that pathogens can be grouped under three major headings: primary pathogens, secondary or opportunistic pathogens, and endotoxins. They further note that the major concerns with pathogens related to composting wastewater sludge are product disinfection, worker health, and public health as impacted by facility location.

The U.S. EPA (1979; 1993) in the previous 40 CFR Part 257 regulations and the new 40 CFR Part 503 regulations is primarily concerned with product quality and safety of the compost. The possible presence of pathogens is a major concern. The previous regulation for pathogen control was technology based. Under 40 CFR Part 257, minimum standards were issued for processes to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP). Compost that had been subject to PSRP could be used but was limited to certain restrictions. The previous regulations also defined processes to further reduce pathogens (PFRP). Fewer restrictions were placed on the use of PFRP compost.

Both PSRP and PFRP are based on a time-temperature requirement. For example, if a composting process reached at least 40°C for at least 5 consecutive days, and 55°C for at least 4 hr during that time, it met PSRP. If aerated, static piles and in-vessel systems maintained a temperature of at least 55°C for 3 consecutive days (in the coolest part of the pile), then that compost met PSRP. Such sludge was subjected to less restriction for distribution and marketing.

The new regulations regulate the product compost as well as the process. To obtain a compost that can be widely distributed or marketed (now called Class A), processors must use a PFRP time-temperature standard (or equivalent processing) and produce a product with less than or equal to 1000 fecal coliforms/g dry solids or less than or equal to 3 salmonella/g dry solids.

Numerous studies have been conducted for pathogen levels at composting facilities and in the final compost product (Epstein and Donovan 1992). Most of these studies focused on indicator organisms (fecal coliforms) and salmonellae. Yanko (1988) notes that composting is an effective method for the disinfection of sludge although considerable variability exists among the data related to the method of composting and system design and operation. In other words, proper disinfection requires careful system design and operation. In addition, the possibility exists of a repopulation of organisms in disinfected compost (Farrell 1993).

Several authors have reported the potential for the repopulation of salmonellae in composted wastewater sludge (Epstein and Wilson 1975; Brandon, Burge, and Enkiri 1977; Brandon and Neuhauser 1978; Burge et al. 1987). Brandon et al. (1977; 1978) relate the repopulation to the moisture content of the compost. Russ and Yanko (1981) evaluate the factors affecting salmonellae repopulation in sludge compost. They found that the moisture level, temperature, and nutrient content of the composted solids affect repopulation. They further report that repopulation is transient with population peaks occurring around 5 days followed by a subsequent die-off. Other authors note the importance of microbial competition for minimizing repopulation (Hussong, Burge, and Enkiri 1985; Yeager and Ward 1981).

The most important parameter for pathogen destruction is temperature. Adequate temperature can be reached, but it depends on proper facility design and operation. The most important considerations are preparing a good initial mix and maintaining aerobic conditions. These conditions are a function of the mix properties, moisture control, aeration, and the C:N ratio. As previously noted, these factors impact the composting process and affect pathogen destruction.

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