Practical Application Of

The chromium reaction typically takes place at a pH of 2.0 to 2.5. At this pH, the smell of sulfur dioxide is present when the sulfite ion is in slight excess. An experienced operator can adjust his control point potential to attain a slight odor of sulfur dioxide and then make further adjustments based on laboratory analysis for hexavalent chromium. Setting up a system based on calculation is possible when all reactants and products are known. However, this case is rare in industrial processes, and most applications require analytical verification of results.

The ORP responses in two common applications are illustrated by the titration curves in Figures 7.7.10 and 7.7.11. These curves are only examples. The responses can vary considerably from one installation and process composition to another. The actual control points must be finely adjusted after system startup.

volume oxidizing agent added

FIG. 7.7.11 Cyanide oxidation titration curve.

on the condition and response of the electrode system. The recommended treatment for either a change of span or a shift in potential is cleaning with aqua regia.

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