Precipitation is the creation of insoluble materials by chemical reactions that provides treatment through subsequent liquid-solids separation. The removal of sulfates, removal of trivalent chromium, and softening of water with lime are typical precipitation operations. A variation of this process following the treatment discussed previously, in connection with the chemical oxidation process, removes iron and manganese. Lime softening is a common process and is used as an example.

The following reaction is involved:

Calcium bicarbonate



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