Anaerobic treatment applies to both wastewater treatment and sludge digestion. This section discusses only anaerobic wastewater treatment. Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an effective biological method for treating many organic wastes. The microbiology involved in the process includes facultative and anaerobic microorganisms, which, in the absence of oxygen, convert organic materials into gaseous end products such as carbon dioxide and methane.
Anaerobic wastewater treatment was discovered in the middle of the last century; however, environmental engineers have only seriously considered it in the last twenty years (Forster 1985). Despite intense research in this field in the past few decades, much research is still needed in several areas. These areas include (Forster 1985):
Microbiology—Further research on the biochemistry and genetics related to the anaerobic microbial species is required.
Start up procedures—Optimal procedures to minimize the lag time between the commissioning of a reactor and its placement into full operation must be investigated.
Optimization of process engineering—Further optimization of the anaerobic treatment process is required, especially involving ancillary equipment, small-scale reactors, and support media (where applicable).
The major advantages of anaerobic treatment over aerobic treatment are as follows:
The biomass yield for anaerobic processes is much lower than that for aerobic systems; thus, less biomass is produced per unit of organic material used. This reduced biomass means savings in excess sludge handling and disposal and lower nitrogen and phosphorus requirements.
Since aeration is not required, capital costs and power consumption are lower.
Methane gas produced in anaerobic processes provides an economically valuable end product.
The savings from lower sludge production, electricity conservation, and methane production range from $0.20 to $0.50 per 1000 gal of domestic sewage treatment (Jewell 1987). The reduction of sludge and aeration energy consumption each result in savings that are greater than the cost of the energy required by the anaerobic process (Jewell 1987). In addition, a substantial part of the energy requirements for anaerobic processes can be obtained from exhaust gas.
Higher influent organic loading is possible for anaerobic systems than for aerobic systems because the anaerobic process is not limited by the oxygen transfer capability at high-oxygen utilization rates in aerobic processes.
However, some disadvantages are associated with the anaerobic process as follows:
Energy is required by elevated reactor temperatures to maintain microbial activity at a practical rate. (Generally, the optimum temperature for anaerobic processes is 35°C.) This disadvantage is not serious if the methane gas produced by the process can supply the heat energy. Higher detention times are required for anaerobic processes than aerobic treatment. Thus, an economical treatment time can result in incomplete organic stabilization.
Undesirable odors are produced in anaerobic processes due to the production of H2S gas and mercaptans. This limitation can be a problem in urban areas. Anaerobic biomass settling in the secondary clarifier is more difficult to treat than biomass sedimentation in the activated-sludge process. Therefore, the capital costs associated with clarification are higher. Operating anaerobic reactors is not as easy as aerobic units. Moreover, the anaerobic process is more sensitive to shock loads (Benefield and Randall 1980).
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