RBC design is often based on empirical design curves supplied by RBC manufacturers. Once the environmental engineer estimates the surface loading L (gal/ft2-day) required to achieve a BOD removal efficiency, the required disk surface area A (ft2) for a total flow Q (gal/day) is calculated as follows:
A more rational design approach, which considers the mass balances for both the substrate and biomass at a specific stage, has been proposed by Ramalho (1983). The re-
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