An integrated plant uses all by-products and co-products within the plant itself. This use minimizes the interplant transportation of raw materials, by-products, and wastes. Such a facility is likely to be large and complex. Thus, pollution prevention can supplement or replace the economics of scale for planning large, integrated facilities.
The importance of considering pollution prevention from the early design stage cannot be overemphasized. This consideration is critical for avoiding intrinsic wastes including unreacted raw materials, impurities in the reac-tants, unwanted by-products, and spent auxiliary materials (catalysts, oils, solvents, and others).
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