The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) (16 USC §§1451-1464), originally enacted in 1972 and reauthorized in 1990 (Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments §6201-17), controls land use along the nation's coastal zone. This area is particularly susceptible to pressure from population and development. Consequently, Congress developed the CZMA to protect and enhance the nation's coastal zone (CZMA §302[a], 16 USC §1451[a]). The act seeks to achieve this goal by implementing four national policies and calling for states to implement programs which meet minimum federal standards. The four national policies under the CZMA are:
1. To preserve, protect and develop, and where possible to restore and enhance the coastal zone (CZMA §303, 16 USC §1452)
2. To assist states in developing their own coastal management programs (CZMA §303, 16 USC 1452)
3. To encourage the preparation of management plans for special areas to protect natural resources and allow for reasonable coastal-dependent economic growth (CZMA §303, 16 USC §1452)
4. To encourage the participation of federal, state, regional, and local government bodies in achieving the purposes of the act (CZMA §303 , 16 USC § 1452 )
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