Q 15q 22q 75q 66q 18 23q 3qq 55 267q 141 21q 17q 5qq 23 4q 16q

32.2 4.3 25.8 Q.57 Q.17 Q.32 53 5.Q 217Q 14.2 21Q 7QQ 63Q 18 22Q 27Q

44.3 5.9 37.8 Q.44 Q.16 Q.48 68 5.4 262Q 13.9 2QQ 16Q 49Q 22 4Q 15Q

Source: Savage and Diaz, 1986.

properties of the MSW and the recovered RDF after various degrees of recycling.

The model shows that the ash content drops and the heating value rises as the MSW is processed into RDF, and the type and degree of recycling has only a limited effect on the ash content or heating value (Savage and Diaz 1986). The nitrogen content of the RDF is consistently lower than that of the MSW, and the sulfur content is relatively unaffected by processing; while PVC recycling has a substantial effect on the chlorine content of the RDF. The calculated heavy metal analysis shows that because of the magnetic separation of ferrous metals, the concentration of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is lower in the RDF than in the MSW.

Modeling is a useful tool in the evaluation of RDF processes. One can estimate the effect of the degree of size reduction, the influence of the opening sizes in screening equipment, and the effect of placing shredders up or downstream of the screening or air-separation equipment. Some modeling calculations can also estimate the base/acid ratio, slagging index, and fouling index values, which can indicate likely maintenance and operating problems associated with a particular process.

Adapted from Municipal Waste Disposal in the 1990s by Bela G. Liptak (Chilton, 1991).

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