where n is the effective porosity or percent of interconnected pore spaces that actually contributes to the flow.

The average pore water velocity calculated in Equation 9.13(6) is a conservative estimate of the migration velocity of the contaminant in groundwater. Therefore, when only advection is considered, a contaminant moves with the groundwater flow at the same rate as water, and no diminution of concentration is observed. In reality, however, the movement of the contaminant is also influenced by dispersion and retardation.

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