The most important parameter in solid waste management is the quantity to be managed. The quantity determines the size and number of the facilities and equipment required to manage the waste. Also important, the fee col lected for each unit quantity of waste delivered to the facility (the tipping fee) is based on the projected cost of operating a facility divided by the quantity of waste the facility receives.
The quantity of solid waste can be expressed in units of volume (typically cubic yards or cubic meters) or in units of weight (typically short, long, or metric tons). In this chapter, the word ton refers to a short ton (2000 lb). Although information about both volume and weight are important, using weight as the master parameter is generally preferable in record keeping and calculations.
The advantage of measuring quantity in terms of weight rather than volume is that weight is fairly constant for a given set of discarded objects, whereas volume is highly variable. Waste set out on the curb on a given day in a given neighborhood occupies different volumes on the curb, in the collection truck, on the tipping floor of a transfer station or composting facility, in the storage pit of a combustion facility, or in a landfill. In addition, the same waste can occupy different volumes in different trucks or landfills. Similarly, two identical demolished houses occupy different volumes if one is repeatedly run over with a bulldozer and the other is not. As these examples illustrate, the phrases "a cubic yard of MSW" and "a cubic yard of bulky waste" have little meaning by themselves; the phrases "a ton of MSW" and "a ton of bulky waste" are more meaningful.
Franklin Associates, Ltd., regularly estimates the quantity of MSW generated and disposed of in the United States under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Franklin Associates derives its estimates from industrial production data using the material flows methodology, based on the general assumption that what is produced is eventually discarded (see "Estimation of Waste Quantity" in Section 10.4). Franklin Associates estimates that 195.7 million tons of MSW were generated in the United States in 1990. Of this total, an estimated 33.4 million tons (17.1%) were recovered through recycling and composting, leaving 162.3 million tons for disposal (Franklin Associates, Ltd. 1992).
The quantity of solid waste is often expressed in pounds per capita per day (pcd) so that waste streams in different areas can be compared. This quantity is typically calculated with the following equation:
pcd = pounds per capita per day T = number of tons of waste generated in a year P = population of the area in which the waste is generated
Unless otherwise specified, the tonnage T includes both residential and commercial waste. With modification the equation can also calculate pounds per employee per day, residential waste per person per day, and so on.
Franklin Associates's (1992) estimate of MSW generated in the United States in 1990, previously noted, equates to 4.29 lb per person per day. This estimate is probably low for the following reasons:
Waste material is not included if Franklin Associates cannot document the original production of the material. Franklin's material flows methodology generally does not account for moisture absorbed by materials after they are manufactured (see "Combustion Characteristics" in Section 10.3).
Table 10.2.1 shows waste quantities reported for various counties and cities in the United States. All quantities are given in pcd. Reports from the locations listed in the table indicate an average generation rate for MSW of 5.4 pcd, approximately 25% higher than the Franklin Associates estimate. Roughly 60% of this waste is generated in residences (residential waste) while the remaining 40% is generated in commercial, industrial, and institutional establishments (CII waste). The percentage of CII waste is usually lower in suburban areas without a major urban center and higher in urban regional centers.
Table 10.2.1 also shows generation rates for solid waste other than MSW. The quantity of other waste, most of which is bulky waste, is roughly half the quantity of MSW. The proportion of bulky and other waste varies, however, and is heavily influenced by the degree to which recycled bulky materials are counted as waste. The quantities of bulky waste shown for Atlantic and Cape May counties, New Jersey, include large amounts of recycled concrete, asphalt, and scrap metal. See also "Component Composition of Bulky Waste" in Section 10.3.
Franklin Associates (1992) projects that the total quantity of MSW generated in the United States will increase by 13.5% between 1990 and 2000 while the population will increase by only 7.3%. On a per capita basis, therefore, MSW generation is projected to grow 0.56% per year. No comparable projections have been developed for bulky waste. Table 10.2.2 shows the potential effect of this growth rate on MSW generation rates and quantities.
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