Recycling and Reuse

Recycling techniques allow reuse of waste materials for beneficial purposes. A recycled material is used, reused, or reclaimed [40 CFR §261.1 (c)(7)]. Recycling through use or reuse involves returning waste material to the original process as a substitute for an input material, or to another process as an input material. Recycling through reclamation involves processing a waste for recovery of a valuable material or for regeneration. Recycling can help eliminate waste disposal costs, reduce raw material costs, and provide income from saleable waste.

Recycling is the second option in the pollution prevention hierarchy and should be considered only when all source reduction options have been investigated and implemented. Recycling options are listed in the following order:

• Direct reuse on-site

• Additional recovery on-site

• Recovery off-site

• Sale for reuse off-site (waste exchange)

It is important to note that recycling can increase a generator's risk or liability as a result of the associated material handling and management. Recycling effectiveness depends upon the ability to separate recoverable waste from other process waste.

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